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.\" Please adjust this date whenever revising the manpage.
.Dd January 12, 2017
.Dt CPARSER 1
.Sh NAME
.Nm cparser
.Nd C compiler
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl c | S | E | -print-ast
.Op Fl -print-implicit-cast
.Op Fl -print-parenthesis
.Op Fl Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm integrated-cpp
.Op Fl target Ar architecture Ns Cm - Ns Ar vendor Ns Cm - Ns Ar system
.Op Fl ansi
.Op Fl std= Ns Ar standard
.Op Fl - Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm gcc
.Op Fl - Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm ms
.Op Fl g Ns Op Ar level
.Op Fl O Ns Op Ar level
.Op Fl W Ns Op Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Oo Cm error= Oc Ns Ar warning
.Op Fl w
.Op Fl I Ns Ar dir
.Op Fl L Ns Ar dir
.Op Fl D Ns Ar macro Ns Op Cm = Ns Ar defn
.Op Fl U Ns Ar macro
.Op Fl f Ns Ar option
.Op Fl finput-charset= Ns Ar encoding
.Op Fl b Ns Ar option
.Op Fl l Ns Ar library
.Op Fl o Ns Ar outfile
.Op Fl x Ns Ar language
.Op Fl Wl, Ns Ar option
.Op Fl Wp, Ns Ar option
.Op Fl -sysroot= Ns Ar dir
.Op Fl isysroot Ar dir
.Ar
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
is a C compiler, which can parse C90 and C99 as well as many GCC and some MSC extensions.
It also provides many useful analyses for warnings and generates concise messages in case of error.
It uses libFIRM for optimization and code generation.
The compiler driver is largely compatible with GCC.
.Sh OPTIONS
.Bl -tag
.It Fl c
Compile the input files to object files.
.No The default output filename is the input filename with the extension replaced by Sq .o .
.It Fl S
Compile the input files to assembler.
.No The default output filename is the input filename with the extension replaced by Sq .s .
.It Fl E
Preprocess the input file only.
By default the result is output to stdout.
.It Fl -print-ast
Output the abstract syntax tree of the parsed input file as C again.
.It Fl -print-implicit-cast
.No When using Fl -print-ast , No show casts, which are inserted by the semantic checks .
.It Fl -print-parenthesis
.No When using Fl -print-ast , No show all expressions fully parenthesized .
.It Fl Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm integrated-cpp
Use the integrated preprocessor instead of an external one.
.No This is the default if no Fl target No is specified .
.No Otherwise the external preprocessor Ar architecture Ns Cm - Ns Ar vendor Ns Cm - Ns Ar system Ns Cm -gcc No is used .
.It Fl target Ar architecture Ns - Ns Ar vendor Ns - Ns Ar system
Set target, for which code is generated.
.No Supported Ar architecture Ns s are:
.Bl -dash -compact
.It
.Cm amd64, x86_64
.It
.Cm arm
.It
.Cm i386 , i486 , i586 , i686 , i787
.It
.Cm mips
.It
.Cm sparc
.El
.No Supported Ar vendor Ns s are:
.Bl -dash -compact
.It
.Cm leon Pq for Cm sparc
.It
.Cm unknown
.El
.No Supported Ar system Ns s are:
.Bl -dash -compact
.It
.Cm *bsd*
.It
.Cm darwin*
.It
.Cm elf , irtss , octopos
.It
.Cm freebsd*
.It
.Cm *linux*
.It
.Cm midipix*
.It
.Cm mingw*
.El
.It Fl ansi
.No Same as Fl std=c90 Po for C Pc No or Fl std=c++98 Pq for C++ .
.It Fl std= Ns Ar standard
Select the language standard.
Supported values are:
.Bl -tag -compact -width "iso9899:1990"
.It Cm c89
.It Cm c90
.It Cm iso9899:1990
ISO C90
.It Cm gnu89
ISO C90 with GCC extensions
.It Cm c99
.It Cm iso9899:1999
ISO C99
.It Cm gnu99
ISO C99 with GCC extensions
.It Cm c11
.It Cm iso9899:2011
ISO C11
.It Cm gnu11
ISO C11 with GCC extensions
.It Cm c++98
ISO C++ 1998.
Not supported yet.
.It Cm gnu++98
ISO C++ 1998 with GCC extensions.
Not supported yet.
.El
.It Fl - Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm gcc
Enable GCC extensions.
.No This switch supersedes Fl std .
.No The default depends on Fl std :
.No On for Cm gnu* , No off otherwise .
.It Fl - Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm ms
Enable MSC extensions.
Default is off.
.It Fl g Ns Op Ar level
When compiling C files, add DWARF debug information.
.It Fl O Ns Op Ar level
.\" TODO expand
Select the optimization level.
Sensible values are
.Cm fast , g , s , z No and Cm 0 No till Cm 4 , No inclusive .
.No If Ar level No is not given, Cm 1 No is assumed .
.No Default is Cm 0 .
.\" TODO expand
.It Fl W Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Ar warning
Enable the specified warning.
.It Fl Werror= Ns Ar warning
.No Enable the specified warning and turn it into an error, even in the presence of Fl Wno-error .
.It Fl Wno-error= Ns Ar warning
.No Force the specified warning to only be a warning, even in the presence of Fl Werror .
This neither enables nor disables the warning itself.
.It Fl Waddress
Warn about suspicious use of addresses, like using the address of a function or variable as boolean condition or comparing with the address of a string literal.
.It Fl Waggregate-return
Warn about defining or calling a function, which returns a struct or union by value.
.It Fl Wall
Activate most warnings.
In particular these are
.Fl Waddress ,
.Fl Wattribute ,
.Fl Wchar-subscripts ,
.Fl Wcomment ,
.Fl Wempty-statement ,
.Fl Wformat ,
.Fl Wimplicit-function-declaration ,
.Fl Wimplicit-int ,
.Fl Winit-self ,
.Fl Wmain ,
.Fl Wnonnull ,
.Fl Wparentheses-assignment ,
.Fl Wparentheses-comparison ,
.Fl Wparentheses-else ,
.Fl Wparentheses-logical ,
.Fl Wparentheses-shift ,
.Fl Wpointer-arith ,
.Fl Wredundant-decls ,
.Fl Wreturn-type ,
.Fl Wshadow-local ,
.Fl Wsign-compare ,
.Fl Wstrict-prototypes ,
.Fl Wswitch-enum ,
.Fl Wunknown-pragmas ,
.Fl Wunreachable-code ,
.Fl Wunused-function ,
.Fl Wunused-label ,
.Fl Wunused-parameter ,
.Fl Wunused-value ,
.Fl Wunused-variable .
.It Fl Wcast-qual
.No Warn whenever a pointer cast removes qualifiers from the pointed-to type, e.g. casting a So const char* Sc to Sq char* .
.It Fl Wchar-subscripts
.No Warn about using an expression of type char as array subscript, e.g. Sq char\ c; arr[c] .
.It Fl Wcpp
.No Show warning messages emitted by So #warning Sc directives.
Default is on.
.It Fl Wdeclaration-after-label
Warn when a declaration is found right after a label, which is not allowed in C.
This option has no effect for C++, which allows this.
Default is on as error.
.It Fl Wdeclaration-after-statement
Warn about mixing declarations and statements, which is not allowed prior to C99.
.It Fl Wdiv-by-zero
Warn about compile-time integer division by zero.
.It Fl Wempty-statement
.No Warn about empty statements, i.e. statements which only consist of a single Sq \&; .
.No Use So {} Sc as replacement to avoid this warning.
.It Fl Werror
Treat warnings as errors, i.e. do not continue after parsing when a warning is encountered.
.It Fl Wextra, W
Activate some more warnings.
In particular these are
.Fl Wempty-statement ,
.Fl Wshadow ,
.Fl Wunused-parameter ,
.Fl Wunused-value .
.It Fl Wfatal-errors
Immediately abort compilation when encountering an error.
.It Fl Wformat
Check format strings of char and wchar_t functions.
.It Fl Wimplicit
.No Activate Fl Wimplicit-function-declaration , Wimplicit-int .
.It Fl Wimplicit-function-declaration
Warn about calling a function without a prior declaration.
.It Fl Wimplicit-int
Warn about declarations whose declaration specifiers do not include a type specifier.
.It Fl Winit-self
Warn about uninitialized variables which are initialized with themselves.
.It Fl Wlabel-at-end-of-block
Warn when a label is found right before the closing brace of a compound statement, which is not allowed in C.
Default is on as error.
.It Fl Wlong-long
.No Warn if the type So long long Sc is used .
.It Fl Wmain
.No Warn if the type of So main Sc is suspicious .
.No \&It should be a non-static function declared as either So Ft int Fn main void Sc , So Ft int Fn main int char** Sc or, as an extension, Sq Ft int Fn main int char** char** .
.It Fl Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a non-static function or a global variable without a storage class is defined without a prior declaration.
This is typically a sign of a missing #include or that the object should be static.
.It Fl Wmissing-noreturn
.No Warn about functions, which are candidates for the attribute Sq noreturn .
.It Fl Wmissing-prototypes
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration.
.It Fl Wmultichar
.No Warn if a multicharacter constant Po 'FOOF' Pc is used .
.It Fl Wnested-externs
Warn if an
.Sq extern
declaration is encountered within a function.
.It Fl Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses or braces are omitted in certain contexts.
.No Activate Fl Wparentheses-assignment , Wparentheses-comparison , Wparentheses-else , Wparentheses-logical , Wparentheses-shift .
.It Fl Wparentheses-assignment
.No Warn if an assignment is used as condition, e.g. Sq if\ (x\ =\ 23) .
Default is off.
.It Fl Wparentheses-comparison
.No Warn if cascaded comparisons appear which do not have their mathematical meaning, e.g. Sq if\ (23\ <=\ x\ <\ 42) .
Default is off.
.It Fl Wparentheses-else
.No Warn if it there may be confusion which So if Sc Ns -statement an So else Sc Ns -branch belongs to, e.g. Sq if\ (x)\ if\ (y)\ {}\ else\ {} .
Default is off.
.It Fl Wparentheses-logical
.No Warn if So && Sc without parentheses is used within So || Sc , e.g. Sq if\ (x\ ||\ y\ &&\ z) .
Default is off.
.It Fl Wparentheses-shift
.No Warn if So + Sc or So - Sc is used as operand of So << Sc or So >> Sc , Sq e.g. x\ +\ y\ <<\ z .
Default is off.
.It Fl Wredundant-decls
Warn about redundant declarations, i.e. multiple declarations of the same object or static forward declarations which have no use before their definition.
.It Fl Wreturn-local-addr
Warn about returning a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to a variable that goes out of scope after the function returns.
.It Fl Wshadow
Warn when a new declaration shadows another declaration with the same name in an outer scope.
.It Fl Wshadow-local
.No Like Fl Wshadow , No but only warn if the shadowed declaration is not global, e.g. a local variable shadows a parameter or another local variable .
.It Fl Wsystem
Show warnings in system headers.
By default, no warnings in system headers are shown.
.It Fl Wunreachable-code
.No Warn when the compiler determines that a statement Po or in some cases a part thereof Pc will never be executed .
Enabled by default.
.It Fl Wunused
.No Activate Fl Wunused-function , Wunused-label , Wunused-parameter , Wunused-value , Wunused-variable .
.It Fl Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used.
Enabled by default.
.It Fl Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a non-inline static function is unused.
.No To suppress this warning, cast the function to So Ft void Sc , e.g. Sq (void)fun .
Enabled by default.
.It Fl Wunused-parameter
.No Warn when a parameter is never used or only ever read to calculate its own new value, e.g. Sq x\ =\ x\ +\ 1 .
.No To suppress this warning, cast the parameter to So Ft void Sc , e.g. Sq (void)x .
Enabled by default.
.It Fl Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used.
.No To suppress this warning, cast the expression to So Ft void Sc , e.g. Sq (void)(x\ +\ 1) .
Enabled by default.
.It Fl Wunused-variable
.No Warn when a variable is never used or only ever read to calculate its own new value, e.g. Sq x\ =\ x\ +\ 1 .
.No To suppress this warning, cast the variable to So Ft void Sc , e.g. Sq (void)x .
Enabled by default.
.It Fl w
Suppress all warnings.
.It Fl I Ns Ar dir , Fl I Ar dir
.No Add the directory Ar dir No to the paths to be searched for include files .
.It Fl L Ns Ar dir , Fl L Ar dir
.No Add the directory Ar dir No to the paths to be searched for libraries .
.It Fl D Ns Ar macro Ns Oo Cm = Ns Ar defn Oc , Fl D Ar macro Ns Op Cm = Ns Ar defn
.No Define the preprocessor macro Ar macro No and set its expanded value to Ar defn .
.No If Cm = Ns Ar defn No is not given, the macro will expand to Sq 1 .
.It Fl U Ns Ar macro , Fl U Ar macro
.No Undefine the preprocessor macro Ar macro .
.It Fl f Ns Ar option
Set a frontend or optimizer option.
.No Use Fl fhelp No to get a list of supported optimizer options .
.It Fl f Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm diagnostics-show-option
Show the switch, which controls the warning, after each warning.
Default is on.
.It Fl finput-charset= Ns Ar encoding
Select the encoding of the input.
Case is ignored.
Supported values are:
.Bl -tag -compact -width "ISO_8859-1:1987"
.It Cm ISO_8859-1:1987
.No aliases Cm CP819 , IBM819 , ISO-8859-1 , ISO8859-1 , ISO_8859-1 , csISOLatin1 , iso-ir-100 , l1 No and Cm latin1
.It Cm ISO-8859-15
.No aliases Cm ISO8859-15 , ISO_8859-15 No and Cm Latin-9
.It Cm windows-1252
.No alias Cm cp1252
.It Cm UTF-8
default
.El
.It Fl f Ns Oo Cm no- Oc Ns Cm show-column
Show the column number in diagnostic messages.
.It Fl fsigned-char
.No Define So Ft char Sc to have the same range, representation and behaviour as Sq Ft signed char .
.It Fl funsigned-char
.No Define So Ft char Sc to have the same range, representation and behaviour as Sq Ft unsigned char .
.It Fl b Ns Ar option
Set a backend option.
.No Use Fl bhelp No to get a list of supported options .
.It Fl l Ns Ar library , Fl l Ar library
Link with the specified library.
.It Fl o Ns Ar outfile , Fl o Ar outfile
Specify the output filename.
This is only valid when using a single input filename.
.Fl "" No as Ar outfile No uses stdout for output .
.It Fl x Ns Ar language , Fl x Ar language
Overwrite the language auto-detection for the following filenames by the
specified
.Ar language .
Supported values are:
.Bl -tag -compact -width "assembler-with-cpp"
.It Cm assembler
Assembler file
.It Cm assembler-with-cpp
Assembler file, which needs to be preprocessed
.It Cm c
.It Cm c-header
C file
.It Cm c++
.It Cm c++-header
C++ file
.It Cm none
Revert to auto-detection
.El
.It Fl Wl, Ns Ar option
.No Pass Ar option No to the linker .
.It Fl Wp, Ns Ar option
.No Pass Ar option No to the preprocessor .
.It Fl -sysroot= Ns Ar dir , Fl -sysroot Ar dir
.No Use Ar dir No as prefix for all implicit include and library paths of the compiler driver as well as for all include and library paths, which start with Sq = .
.No For include paths this option is superseded by Fl isysroot .
.No By default no prefix is used and So = Sc is not replaced.
.It Fl isysroot Ns Ar dir , Fl isysroot Ar dir
.No Use Ar dir No as prefix for all implicit include paths of the compiler driver as well as for all include paths, which start with Sq = .
.No this supersedes Fl -sysroot .
.No By default no prefix is used and So = Sc is not replaced.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr gcc 1 ,
http://www.libfirm.org/
.Sh BUGS
Probably many - if you hit one, please report it.
.Pp
.Nm
needs to support more switches for better GCC compatibility.
.Pp
This manual page is incomplete.
.Sh AUTHORS
.An -nosplit
.Nm
was written by
.An Matthias Braun Aq matze@braunis.de ,
.An Christoph Mallon Aq christoph.mallon@gmx.de
and
.An Michael Beck .